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    (Canadian) regional breakdowns of air temperatures (departures from long term means) Publication Findlay, B.F. , D.W. Gullett, L. Malone, J. Reycraft, W.R. Skinner , L. Vincent, and R. Whitehouse. 1994. Canadian national and regional annual air temperature departures. pp. 738-764. In Boden, T.A., D.P. Kaiser, R.J. Sepanski, and F.W. Stoss (eds.). 1994. Trends'93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. ORNL/CDIAC-65. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. IOSPBS Data Distribution In CDIAC-Trends '93 volume (plots and table). I am presently trying to get a hold of the authors to determine how we might get access to updated versions of these files. PSARC_Utility "These are ""over land"" air temperatures - BC regions are: South BC. Mountains and Pacific Coast. These regional annual statistics may be useful in describing long term trends, although the data are aggregated along a large north-south area." Improvements If useful, these data could be provide on-line and updated annually Base Internet/URL http:/www.ec.gc.ca [ A TCODE project ]

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    Measurement Details "Global and Hemispheric temperature anomalies; land and marine instrumental records. This dataset is a combination of land air temperature anomalies (Jones, 1994) and sea surface temperature anomalies (Parker et al., 1995) on a 5° x 5° grid-box basis. The merging of the two datasets is discussed in Parker et al. (1994). Both components of the dataset are expressed as anomalies from 1961-90, as this makes computation much easier. The dataset has been extensively used in the various IPCC reports (see, e.g., Nicholls et al., 1996). An absolute temperature Climatology is being developed. The grid-box data is available, together with the average hemispheric (Northern, Southern) and global time series. Annual values for these three series are plotted. The standard error is due to sampling of the individual annual values since 1951 is estimated to be 0.05°C (see Jones et al., 1997 for details)." Publication "Jones, P.D., 1994: Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993. J. Climate 7, 1794-1802. Jones, P.D., Osborn, T.J. and Briffa, K.R., 1997: Estimating sampling errors in large-scale temperature averages. J. Climate 10, 2548-2568. Nicholls, N., Gruza, G.V., Jouzel, J., Karl, T.R., Ogallo, L.A. and Parker, D.E., 1996: Observed climate variability and change. In (J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell, Eds.) Climate Change 1995: The IPCC Second Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 133-192. Parker, D.E., Jones, P.D., Bevan, A. and Folland, C.K., 1994: Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late 19th century. Journal of Geophysical Research 99, 14373-14399. Parker, D.E., Folland, C.K. and Jackson, M., 1995: Marine surface temperature: observed variations and data requirements. Climatic Change 31, 559-600." Data Distribution graphics, tabular summaries and gridded data available from web site. IOSPBS Data Distribution "This is a research dataset computed for the use of the custodian, however, he is generous and allows distribution. We recommend that potential users ask his permission to use these data and be sure to acknowledge him in any publications. Howard Freeland maintains a continuing file of the data and the monthly series are available in the ""lighthouse archive"" (CCS$PHYSICS:[LIGHTHOUSE.ARCHIVE.MONTHLY]) - files : N_HEM.TAS (Land Air Temperature anomalies) and N_HEM_LM.TAS (Land and Marine Air temperature anomalies)" PSARC_Utility There are two types of time series for each of the N. and S. hemisphere. These represent land and marine air temperature averages (one value/month/hemisphere) and land only observations. This is the standard dataset for monitoring the effects of global warming. Improvements We could make this available on the IOS WWW site, similar the lighthouse time series files. Some alternative formats (IOS HEADER, CSV/spreadsheet format) would be useful. Base Internet/URL -- ( http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/ ) ( http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/temperature/ ) [ A TCODE project ]

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    Measurement Details global and hemispheric air temperature anomalies. Gridded values. Anomalies are relative to a 1951-1980 reference period. Publication Wilson, H and J. Hansen. 1994. Global and hemispheric anomalies from instrumental surface air temperature records. pp. 609-614. In Boden, T.A., D.P. Kaiser, R.J. Sepanski, and F.W. Stoss (eds.). 1994. Trends'93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. ORNL/CDIAC-65. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC PSARC_Utility Global and hemispheric temperature trends are probably of academic interest only - regional summaries are probably more relevant to stock assessment. As per Robin Brown.. "**** review this - can't find data ***" [ A TCODE project ]

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    Parameter SST, Air Temperature Measurement Details Daily observations at 10:00 A.M were carried out for surface temperature, air temperature and other meteorological factors at 40 fixed stations (at lighthouse) in Korean coastal waters. The observation starting years are different along to the stations. Recently, there are some stations in which the observation were stopped by the change over the self-operating lighthouse. Geographic Area Korean coastal waters Base Internet/URL ( http://www.nfrda.re.kr/kodc/data/data_e.html ) ( http://www.nfrda.re.kr/kodc/data/codata/index.html ) [ A TCODE project ]

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    This report provides new findings and recent research results, and review on-going and in-planning international and domestic projects to improve cooperative research. The workshop discussion focused mainly on physical oceanography, and talks covered a wide range of research: sea-ice characteristics and its movements; the relation between ice-cover and atmospheric conditions; sea-ice and dense water (NPIW) formation; ventilation and modification of water masses; tides and their effects on water mixing and on water exchanges through straits; meso-scale eddies, yearly to decadal temporal variations, oceanographic databases and atlases; and the relation of the oceanic state to spawning grounds and to the nutrient and chlorophyll-a distributions. Relations of these to local environments such as the northern Okhotsk Sea Shelf, on the Sakhalin and west Kamchatka shelves, in the Kuril Islands region, and in the Soya (La Peoruse) Strait and northern coast of Hokkaido, were discussed. [ LC Call No. GC781 .P535 no.12. ISBN 0968510027 ]

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    Daily observations at 10:00 A.M were carried out for surface temperature, air temperature and other meteorological factors at 40 fixed stations (at lighthouse) in Korean coastal waters. The observation starting years are different along to the stations. Recently, there are some stations in which the observation were stopped by the change over the self-operating lighthouse.

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    Turbulent flux measurements were made at four levels (42, 90, 195, and 340 m) by the NOAA P-3 aircraft over first-year sea ice in the northern Bering Sea during February 1982. Three profiles of momentum flux and mean wind were used to calculate an air-ice drag coefficient C of 3.0 ᄆ .6 ᅲ 10 referenced to a 10-m anemometer height. The boundary layer was slightly unstable (z/L = -1.2, where z was the inversion height of 660 m and L the Monin-Obukhov length). The mean wind speed at the 42-m height was 17 m/s, and the air temperature was -20°C. From turbulent heat flux measurements the value of the bulk heat transfer coefficient C was 0.73 ᄆ .16 ᅲ 10, giving a C/C of 0.24. The Bowen ratio was greater than 2.8. Comparison of the present turbulent flux and variance profiles with those collected over the ocean shows agreement, which increases confidence in the calculations. The geostrophic drag coefficient |u|/|G|, where u is the friction velocity and G is the geostrophic wind, was 0.047. The turning angle of the surface wind (measured by an anemometer at a height of 3 m on the ice) was 32°, and the ratio of surface wind speed to the geostrophic wind speed was 0.76.

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    This paper discusses the behavior of the Arctic Ocean surface air temperature field for 1979ヨ93. Temperatures are derived from a new gridded 6-h, 2-m air temperature dataset called POLES. These gridded air temperatures are estimated from optimal interpolation of temperature inputs from drifting buoys, manned Soviet North Pole (NP) drifting ice stations, coastal land weather stations, and ship reports. In processing the POLES data, the winter and summer properties of the mean NP temperatures are used to discard inaccurate or snow-covered buoys and to remove a summer warm bias. Comparison of the POLES and specific NP temperatures shows that the POLES temperature behaves well and gives better results than other gridded temperature datasets. Maps of the mean seasonal temperatures give realistic results consistent with other published estimates, and plots of the summer advance and retreat of the 0°C isotherm show the expected asymmetry between advance and retreat associated with the open water formation adjacent to the coasts. Also, comparison of the regional POLES observations of the annual onset of melt and freeze with published estimates derived from visible and passive microwave satellite data gives realistic results. However, problems with the dataset arise in the post-1991 period from the termination of the NP stations and a reduction in the number of Siberian and Alaskan weather stations. In spite of these problems, the paper shows that the POLES dataset provides an improved air temperature field for use in numerical sea ice models and for comparison with satellite datasets.

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    Parameter air temperature, precipitation, air pressure Measurement Details This NDP contains monthly temperature, precipitation, sea-level pressure, and station-pressure data for thousands of meteorological stations worldwide. The database was compiled from pre-existing national, regional, and global collections of data as part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project, the goal of which is to produce, maintain, and make available a comprehensive global surface baseline climate data set for monitoring climate and detecting climate change. It contains data from roughly 6000 temperature stations, 7500 precipitation stations, 1800 sea level pressure stations, and 1800 station pressure stations. Each station has at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and Europe. Data gaps are evident over the Amazon rainforest, the Sahara desert, Greenland, and Antarctica. Other Comments "for version 2 - (temperatures only) contact: Research Customer Service Group National Climatic Data Center Federal Building Asheville, North Carolina 28801 Phone: (704) 271-4994 FAX: (704) 271-4876 E-mail: tross@ncdc.noaa.gov" Base Internet/URL ( http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov ) ( http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp041/ndp041.html ) [A TCODE project ]

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    The Workshop addressed the responses of the subarctic Pacific to forcing by climate variations and human activities. The time scales considered were seasons to centuries. The first workshop objective was to suggest current and future long-term monitoring programs to describe significant forcing and responses. Second was to suggest scientific, technological and other factors that affect the above monitoring programs, and third, was to provide a summary report that advised on the strategy for developing a monitoring program. [ LC Call No. GC781 .P535 no.3. ISBN 0969842031 ]