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    This study examines climatological water properties over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf during 1974-90. Maps of surface and bottom temperature, surface and bottom salinity, and mixed-layer depth are derived and presented for winter, spring, summer, and fall. Surface temperatures range from about -1 to 10°C over the year. Bottom temperatures range from about -1 to 7°C but are colder than surface temperatures except in winter. The patterns of bottom temperature and salinity indicate the path of inflow from Unimak Pass. Surface salinity vary from ~31.2 to 32.5; bottom salinity range from ~31.4 to 33.0. Mixed-layer depths are deepest (>50 m) in winter and fall and shoalest in summer (< 15 m). Waters inshore of 50 m are not always well mixed, in contrast to findings in other studies. The most extreme bottom water temperatures (3°C colder than normal) occurred in 1976 as a result of extensive ice cover in winter.[ Reference: Reed, R.K. (1995): Water properties over the Bering Sea shelf: Climatology and variations. NOAA Tech. Report ERL 452-PMEL 42 (PB95-241527), 15 pp. ]

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    We derive climatological mean summer circulation over the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Geostrophic flow (from CTD data, 1975-1989) and drifter velocities (from satellite-tracked buoys, 1986-1994) were used. The following features are shown: (1) in depths > 100 m, a northwestward flow of ~4 cm s, which is largely baroclinic; (2) near the 50 m isobath, a flow of ~2 cm s, which is only partially baroclinic; and (3) a semi-permanent, convoluted flow of 1-2 cm s, between the 100 and 50 m isobaths, that was not recognized in earlier analyses. Data from current moorings indicate that there is no significant tidal enhancement of net flow on the shelf as earlier suggested. This new Climatology also clearly shows a divergence of the inflow through Unimak Pass, and it suggests that the shelf salinity distribution is influenced by advection as well as diffusion.[ Reference: Reed, R.K., and P.J. Stabeno (1996): On the climatological mean circulation over the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Cont. Shelf. Res., 16(10), 1297 - 1305. ]

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    The global climatology field contains climatological data in the form of monthly entries from points in a 1 X 1 degree resolution latitude/longitude these is the NCAR 20-year climatological temperature. The second, when available, is from another source, usually non-global, when the source is thought for any reason to be more representative of a particular geographic region. Land temperatures will probably not be available initially, but can be added as a 'Day-Two' effort. The total file is 242 tracks in length with a physical record being 34 bytes short of a full track long (i.e. 12,996 bytes). Logical records are also 12,996 bytes in length. Temperatures are arranged month-by-month in 12 global grids. The National Climatic Data Center has this data archived on magnetic cartridge. For archived data contact Thomas Ross at NCDC, telephone 828-271-4499, e-mail: tom.ross@noaa.gov.

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    The relation between interannual variations in maximum sea ice extent and atmospheric forcing within the region of the Bering Sea is discussed. Monthly maximum sea ice extents for February and March along a line from Norton Sound southwest toward the ice edge are computed for the ice years 1955/56 to 1979/80 and analyzed for each month's average and each year's seasonal maximum ice extent. A storm track Climatology is developed by computing monthly cyclone frequencies for each 2°-latitude by 4°-longitude quadrangle within 51°N-65°N, 157°W-171°E from November 1957 through March 1980. Five-day block-averaged sea level pressure fields are analyzed from 1954/55 through 1976/77 by month and year for mean sea level pressure and pressure variance climatologies. The annual winter cycle of the storm count maxima, mean pressure minimal, and variance maxima resemble each other closely. The interannual variability of maximum sea ice extent is related to the storm track, mean sea level pressure, and pressure variance climatologies, indicating that in years of greatest ice extent, fewer storms enter the region, and low-pressure centers are quasi-stationary in the western Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Years of least ice extent are characterized by more storms penetrating the region, particularly in the western sector, and by a larger variance in atmospheric pressure everywhere. Meteorological steering of cyclones, determined primarily externally to the Bering Sea, is indicated as the principal factor causing the interannual variability of sea ice extent.[Reference: Pease, C.H., S.A. Schoenberg, and J.E. Overland (1982): A climatology of the Bering Sea and its relation to sea ice extent. NOAA Tech. Report ERL 419-PMEL 36 (PB82-246950), 29 pp.]

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    Monthly mixed layer depth climatology are computed from the WOD98 standard level data. Temperature Criterion: Mixed layer depth climatology is determined as the depth at which the temperature falls to 0.5 degrees C below the surface temperature. Density Criterion: Mixed layer depth is determined as the depth at which the density difference from the sea surface is 0.125 sigma units. Mixed Layer Depth Climatology includes Mixed Layer Depth and Number of Observations with T and D Criteria. For more details, on the criteria see: Monterey, G., and S. Levitus, 1997: Seasonal variability of mixed layer depth for the World Ocean. NOAA Atlas, NESDIS 14, 100 pp., Washington, D.C. Data can be downloaded from the PFEL Live Access Server (LAS) (http://www.pfeg.noaa.gov/products/las.html). [ Reference: PICES Scientific Report No. 18 2001, Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC Workshop on "Impact of Climate Variability on Observation and Prediction of Ecosystem and Biodiversity Changes in the North Pacific", http://www.pices.int/publications/scientific_reports/Report18/default.aspx. ]

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    Monthly summaries of the WOD98 (World Ocean Database 1998) standard level data averaged on a 1 degree latitude/longitude grid. Monthly Climatology includes Temperature Climatology, Number of Temperature Observations, Salinity Climatology, and Number of Salinity Observations. Data can be downloaded from the PFEL Live Access Server (LAS) (http://www.pfeg.noaa.gov/products/las.html). [ Reference: PICES Scientific Report No. 18 2001, Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC Workshop on "Impact of Climate Variability on Observation and Prediction of Ecosystem and Biodiversity Changes in the North Pacific", http://www.pices.int/publications/scientific_reports/Report18/default.aspx. ]

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    Publication Title: Monthly Mean Charts Sea Surface Temperature North Pacific Ocean 1949-1962.Contains summarized monthly mean sea surface temperature charts. Marine weather observations including sea-water temperature for the period of record, January 1949 through December 1962, are conatined in Punched Card Deck 116 of the NWRC. This atlas deals only with sea surface temperature data from the Pacific Ocean north of latitude 20°S. The 14-year series of data are concentrated to a considerable degree along frequently traveled trade routes. Observations are particularly sparse in the tropical areas. The quantity of data varies also with time. The fields of surface (or near surface) sea temperature, arranged chronologically by month and year, are represented by isotherms drawn for each whole degree Centigrade. The analyses were not carried into the Bering Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Japan Sea, Yellow Sea, or South China Sea.This atlas can be obtained from the NOAA Library System: URL http://www.lib.noaa.gov/.

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    A monthly storm-track Climatology is derived from monthly maps of cyclone tracks for the winter season, October through March, averaged over 23 years, 1957/58-1979/80, for a 2° latitude ᅲ 4° longitude grid bounded by 51°N, 65°N, 157°W and 171°E. There is a decrease in the number of cyclones with latitude in all months and division into two storm tracks, one propagating north-northeast along the Siberian peninsula and one entering the southern Bering Sea on a northeasterly course and either curving northward into the central Bering Sea or continuing parallel to the Aleutian Island chain. Monthly average ice extents are established for February and March 1958-80 along a line from Norton Sound southwest toward the ice edge, perpendicular to the average maximum extent. Comparison of composite cyclone charts summed over the winter season and over the five heaviest and five lightest ice years shows a shift in cyclone centers toward the west in light ice years. The correlation between maximum seasonal ice extent and the difference between the number of cyclone centers in the eastern minus the western part of the basin over each winter season is 0.71. The relation of sea ice extent and the location of cyclone tracks is consistent with previous observations that advance of the ice edge in the Bering Sea is dominated by wind-driven advection and that southerly winds associated with cyclone tracks to the west inhibit this advance. These results indicate that the interannual variability in seasonal sea-ice extent in the Bering Sea is controlled by an externally determined variation in storm-track position related to large-scale differences in the general circulation. A skewed distribution of ice extents toward heavy ice years, however, suggests the possibility of an oceanographic constraint on the magnitude of extreme seasonal ice extents, such as the inability of melting ice to cool the mixed layer beyond the continental shelf to the freezing point or the increased influence of the northwestward flowing, continental slope current.

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    Author and title of this book: (in French) Observations Meteorologiques Faites par L'Expedition de la Vega du Cap Nord a Yokohama par le Detroit de Behring. Meteorological Observations made During Expedition of Vega from Cape Nord to Yokohama Via Bering Strait Call number: C/n H 642 5667 Number of books: 1 This book is a part of the foreign meteorological data collection held by the NOAA Central Library in Washington, DC. Information in this collection dates back to the 18th century for daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual tabular summaries, and the 19th century for weather maps. These data are the result of foreign exchange agreements, but the collection has not been updated since 1983. In these summaries, definitions are: 1. Hourly/daily/monthly/seasonal/annual data -- values determined for each consecutive period, e.g. monthly temperature data: January 1900, February 1900, etc. 2. Long-term data -- values determined over a period of years, e.g. long-term monthly temperature data using January 1901, January 1902, etc. This book contains tables, maps, and graphs of hourly, daily, and monthly surface weather during the voyage of Veda from Cape North to Yokohama via Bering Strait (1878-1879) Tables contain the following data: -hourly pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, and clouds -monthly mean temperature and pressure -monthly wind frequency -seasonal mean winds for specific places -annual mean wind direction -annual number of days with snow Graphs contain the following data: -daily mean temperature for the points en route the Veda expedition from Cape North to Yokohama -hourly temperature , pressure, and winds for Pitlekaie for January 26-28, 1899 -daily precipitation for Pitlekaie Map contains the following data: -mean trajectories of squalls for the Bering Strait

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    A warm interval that began at least 10,000 years ago and lasted until at least 8,300 years ago is recorded in the coastal tundra covered area of northwestern Alaska by the presence of fossil wood of tree size or tree species, fossil beaver-gnawed wood found beyond the modern range of beaver, evidence of ice-wedge melting, buried soils and soils that extend below the top of modern permafrost.[Reference: McCulloch, D. and Hopkins, D., 1966, Evidence for an early recent warm interval 10,000 to 8,300 years ago in northern Alaska: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, no. 10, p. 1089-1108.]This journal article can be found at the University of Washington Natural Sciences Library.