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    The Coastal Observation and Simulation with Topography (COAST) program has examined the interaction of both steady-state and transient cool-season synoptic features, such as fronts and cyclones, with the coastal terrain of western North America. Its objectives include better understanding and forecasting of landfalling weather systems and, in particular, the modification and creation of mesoscale structures by coastal orography. In addition, COAST has placed considerable emphasis on the evaluation of mesoscale models in coastal terrain. These goals have been addressed through case studies of storm and frontal landfall along the Pacific Northwest coast using special field observations from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D research aircraft and simulations from high-resolution numerical models. The field work was conducted during December 1993 and December 1995. Active weather conditions encompassing a variety of synoptic situations were sampled. This article presents an overview of the program as well as highlights from a sample of completed and ongoing case studies.

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    No abstract was givien, contact provider for more information

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    Escapement and environmental conditions. Measurement Details: Escapement of fish through Auke Creek weir and stream temperature of Auke Creek. Precipitation, maximum and minimum air temperatures and sea surface temperature (SST) at Auke Bay Laboratory field station. Rainfall - hundredth's of inches; air temperature in degrees F, stream and SST in degrees C. [ Publication: Wing, B. L. , and J. J. Pella, 1998. Time series analyses of climatological records from Auke Bay, Alaska. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-91, 90 p. ] Other Comments: Weather data: 1963-present; SST: 1959-present (with some gaps in the 1970's); stream temperatures: 1962-present (with occasional gaps); escapements: 1963 - present [ A TCODE project ]

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    Weather balloon soundings have been collected since the mid-1990's from NOAA ships during TAO mooring cruises. Sets of soundings are available at 6 month intervals, with some substantial gaps, mostly along the 110 W and 95 W lines.

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    Monthly mixed layer depth are computed from the WOD98 standard level data. Mixed layer depth is determined as the depth at which the density difference from the sea surface is 0.125 sigma units. Data can be downloaded from the PFEL Live Access Server (LAS) (http://www.pfeg.noaa.gov/products/las.html). [ Reference: PICES Scientific Report No. 18 2001, Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC Workshop on "Impact of Climate Variability on Observation and Prediction of Ecosystem and Biodiversity Changes in the North Pacific", http://www.pices.int/publications/scientific_reports/Report18/default.aspx. ]

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    This book is part of the foreign meteorological data collection held by the NOAA Central Library in Washington, DC. Information in this collection dates back to the 18th century for daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual tabular summaries, and the 19th century for weather maps. These data are the result of foreign exchange agreements, but the collection has not been updated since 1983. In these summaries, definitions are: 1. Daily/monthly/seasonal/annual data - values determined for each consecutive period, e.g., monthly temperature data: Jan 1900, Feb 1900, etc. 2. Long-term data - values determined over a period of years, e.g., long-term monthly temperature data using Jan 1900, Jan 1901, etc. The data contained in this book are charts of long-term average monthly mean surface air and sea climate parameters for the North Pacific Ocean. These are for 5 degree squares. These charts have no contour lines and resemble venn diagrams. There seems to be no indication of the dates that the data are compiled for. Charts were produced by R.H. Wyman of the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. Tables contain the following long-term monthly data: - frequency (number of hours) of rain, fog, and winds (%total) - mean pressure, air and sea surface temperature, and evaporation.

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    The northerly winds that predominate along the U.S. west coast during April-September are interrupted periodically by abrupt reversals to southerly flow. The climatology and composite temporal evolution of these reversals from Point Conception to the Canadian border are documented using hourly data from moored coastal buoys and Coastal-Marine Automated Network stations for the period 1981-91. The reversals are divided into two categories: coastally trapped reversals, in which the southerly flow is highly ageostrophic and restricted to the coastal zone, and synoptic reversals, which are associated with landfalling troughs or fronts. Coastally trapped events occur on average about 1.5 times per month along the central and northern California coast, about twice a month near the California-Oregon border, and about once a month near the Oregon-Washington border. The ratio of coastally trapped reversals to synoptic reversals is higher during July-September and lower during April-June, particularly in the north. Roughly one-quarter of the coastally trapped reversals have a southerly wind component that exceeds 5 m s. Reversals along the California coast are gradual; the changes in the alongshore winds usually occur over a period of 6 h or longer, and the maximum southerlies are less than 8 m s. In contrast, roughly one-half of the reversals north of the California-Oregon border feature abrupt changes with southerly winds reaching ~10-12 m s within 2-3 h of the wind shifts. These stronger northern events often include substantial decreases in air temperature and rises in pressure. The southerlies associated with coastally trapped reversals persist for an average of about 30 h at a particular location. There is a strong tendency for coastally trapped reversals to occur during the night or morning. North of Monterey Bay, the reversals typically advance poleward (but not necessarily in a smoothly continuous manner) at a mean speed of 7-8 m s and maintain significant amplitude for an alongshore distance of 500-1000 km.

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    The Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set or COADS* is an extensive oceanographic and meteorological dataset. COADS is the result of a continuing cooperative project between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - its Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL), National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES; joint with the University of Colorado) - and the National Science Foundation's National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The COADS data can be accessed in two ways. The CEOS Project reorganized the CMR.5 version of COADS and stored all of it by area on CD-ROM. CEOS also developed the CODE program to quickly access, process, and summarize the stored data. CODE provides the means, variances, and number of observations for selected parameters from a specified ocean region within a chosen time period. The program creates an output file that can be easily imported into spreadsheet and graphics applications for additional editing, analysis, and display. [ Reference: PICES Scientific Report No. 18 2001, Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC Workshop on "Impact of Climate Variability on Observation and Prediction of Ecosystem and Biodiversity Changes in the North Pacific", http://www.pices.int/publications/scientific_reports/Report18/default.aspx. ]

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    Parameter barometric pressure Measurement Details details vary, but these are basically derived from monthly measurements of air pressure Geographic Area varies with the index Publication "North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): Hurrell(1995): Science 269:676-679 North Pacific (NP) Index: Trenberth and Hurrell (1994): Climate Dynamics 9:303-319 Southern Oscillation Index (SOI): Trenberth (1984):Monthly Weather Review 112:326-332" Data Distribution Graphical and tabular data make be downloaded from this web site IOSPBS Data Distribution available at UCAR/NCAR Web site, also available at IOS - (CCS$PHYSICS:[LIGHTHOUSE.ARCHIVE.MONTHLY]. Available indices are: NAO.IAS; (North American Oscillation Pattern); NP.IAS (North Pacific Pattern); PNA.IAS (Pacific North America Pattern); S_OSC.IAS (Southern Oscillation Index). SOI index is also available on the IOS WWW server. IOS on-line versions are presently prepared and maintained by Howard Freeland. PSARC_Utility Several of these indices have been used in correlation-type studies of production/growth/survival of oceanic fish stocks. The Southern Oscillation Index is frequently used to detect El Nino conditions and to describe the magnitude of the El Nino event. Improvements Automate the update process and provide additional file options (IOS Header and or CSV spreadsheet format). Create public directory for these or add them to our INTERNET WWW server site. Base Internet/URL http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/ A TCODE project

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    Parameter River Flow/Discharge Measurement Details monthly and daily stream/river flow Custodian Environment Canada Publication HYDAT CD-ROM available as a commercial product - $750 (CDN) IOSPBSData Distribution Monthly river flow data files for the Columbia, Fraser, Skeena and Kenai are available at IOS on the SHARE_DATA disk - \RIVERFLO directory, along with a document that describes the sources of the data. Historical data from the Fraser River (up to 1990) was obtained from http://lib.stat.cmu.edu/datasets/fraser-river, with recent data added from the USGS website http://water.usgs.gov/nwc/contents.html. Further details in the RIVERFLO.DOC in the \RIVERFLO directory PSARC_Utility River flow data is key to much work in stock assessment esp. for salmon. Improvements Assemble and maintain a single set of river flow data and make this available in selected formats. This may require some negotiation with Environment Canada. Purchase an updated HYDAT CD-ROM and add it to IOS Library collection (can be borrowed). Data for Canadian rivers from USGS sources should be verified. Other Comments "This CD-ROM volume is available from: Greenland Engineering Group: 7880 Keele Street, Unit 205 Concord, Ontario, Canada L4K 4G7 Tel.: (905)738-1818 E-Mail: greenland@grnland.com" URL ( http://www.grnland.com/ ) [ A TCODE project ]